Coordination and Comparatives

F. Moltmann, 1992

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This thesis deals with three topics: coordination (Chapter 1-3), comparatives (Chapter 4) and exception phrases (Chapter 5).

In the first three chapters, I will present a new three-dimensional theory of coordination and a particular way of compositionally interpreting three-dimensional syntactic structures.  The theory is applied to ATB constructions in Chapter 1 and to constructions with split antecedents in different conjuncts of a coordinate structure in Chapter 2.  I propose that both ATB extraction and the constructions with split antecedents involve a new construction type of implicit coordination.  In Chapter 3, I will discuss the possibility of implicit coordination in constructions other than "and"-coordination and ATB extraction.

Chapter 4 presents a general syntactic and semantic analysis of comparative constructions.  In particular, it presents answers to the following three questions: First, how do quantifier scope interactions come about in comparative clauses and other wh-constructions?  Second, how is the empty element in comparative deletion contexts identified?  Third, what is the syntactic basis for evaluating comparative clauses the way they are most plausibly evaluated, namely as universal quantifiers over degree?  In the fourth chapter, I will also address the issue of whether comparatives involve coordination.  I will argue that comparative sentences may have two syntactic structures simultaneously: a coordinate structure and a subordinate structure.  This also holds for phrasal comparatives.

Chapter 5 deals with various kinds of exception phrases and a number of other constructions which are either semantically or syntactically related to exception constructions, namely "extent clauses", "almost" phrases and amount relatives.  I propose a general semantic condition to account for a constraint on the associated quantifier imposed by exception phrases and semantically related constructions.  Furthermore, I will argue that exception constructions may involve polyadic quantification.  I will also discuss the issue of whether exception constructions syntactically involve coordination, but argue against this possibility.

Thesis Supervisor:         Noam Chomsky

Title:                             Institute Professor


Table of Contents

Chapter 1         Three dimensional approaches to coordination                           10

            1.1       Introduction                                                                                          10

            1.2       General requirements on a theory of coordination                                  10

                        1.2.1    Parallelism and independence in coordinate structures    10

                        1.2.2    The relation between clausal and phrasal coordination    12

            1.3       Coordination in traditional theories                                                        13

            1.4       Three-dimensional theories of phrase markers                           15

                        1.4.1    The basic idea and motivation for three-dimensional phrase

                                    markers                                                                                    15

                        1.4.2    The formal proposals                                                                16

                           Goodall (1987): coordination as phrase marker

union                                                                            16

                           Muadz (1991): base-generation of three-dimensional

                                                phrase markers                                                 19

                           The problem of nested coordination                              26

                           The problem of asymmetries among conjuncts   28

            1.5       A new theory of coordination                                                                29

                        1.5.1    A reformulation of Muadz"s theory in terms of node

                                    admissability conditions                                                 29

                        1.5.2    Motivations for a different theory                                               35

                           The distinction between formal and meaningful

                                                planes                                                                           36

                           The necessity of m-planes                                             39

                           Syntacitc conditions that can be satisfied without

                                                reference to planes                                                        40

                           The necessity of f-planes                                               41

                           Syntactic conditions that cannot be satisfied in

f-planes                                                                        47

                           The assignment of m-planes to sentences with

                                                Gapping and Bare Argument Ellipsis                              48

                        1.5.3    Representing asymmetries among conjuncts                               50

                        1.5.4    A new formalization                                                                  58

                           The definition of a phrase marker                                  58

                           The wellformedness of a three-dimensional phrase

                                                marker                                                                         61

                           The construal of m-planes                                             64

                           The interpretation of a sentence relative to an

                                                m-plane assignment                                                       68

                           The linearization of a coordinate sentence at PF 87

            1.6       Three-dimensional phrase markers and the scope of coordinators          91

                        1.6.1    The treatment of scope in three-dimensional phrase

                                    markers                                                                                    91

                        1.6.2    The scope of coordinators in simple coordinations                     92

                        1.6.3    Parallelisms between Gapping and "respectivel"-sentences         95

                           The semantic status of respectively                               96

                           Parallel constraints on Gapping and "respectively"

                                                constructions                                                                100

                        1.6.4    Distributivity and the conjunction of predicates and

                                    modifiers                                                                                  105

                        1.6.5    Distributivity and conjunction in complex NPs                109

            1.7       ATB movement, ATB reconstruction and three-dimensional phrase

                        markers                                                                                                116

                        1.7.1    Introduction                                                                              116     

                        1.7.2    ATB movement in Goodall"s and Muadz"s theories                   117

                        1.7.3    Williams"s theory of simultaneous factorization               118

                        1.7.4    ATB movement and three-dimensional phrase markers  120

                           ATB movement and implicit coordination                      120

                           Parallelism constraints on ATB movement                     123

                           Mixed-movement constructions                         124

                        1.7.5    ATB reconstruction and three-dimensional phrase markers        125

                           ATB reconstruction with elements taking an

                                                antecedent                                                                    126

                           ATB reconstruction with respect to quantifier scope      131

                           Parallelism effects with ATB extraction              136

            1.8       Appendix: "three-dimensional phrase markers" in syntactic theories

                        without precedence                                                                               141

Notes                                                                                                                           142

Chapter 2         Implicit coordination and group formation                                              147

            2.1       Introduction                                                                                          147

            2.2       The problem and the analysis                                                                148

            2.3       The account in terms of implicit coordination                              152

                        2.3.1    Implicit coordination and group formation                                  152

                        2.3.2    The construal of planes for sentences with implicit

                                    coordination                                                                             153

                        2.3.3    The simultaneous partial interpretation of constructions

                                    implicit coordination                                                                  159

                        2.3.4    Partial interpretation in other contexts                            171

            2.4       Syntactic peculiarities of constructions involving implicit

                        coordination and group formation                                                          172

                        2.4.1    The restriction to coordination                                       172

                        2.4.2    Constraints on implicit coordination and constraints on

                                    ATB movement                                                                        173

                        2.4.3    The Coordinate Structure Constraint for implicitly

                                    coordinated antecedents                                                           176

                        2.4.4    The position of the element taking an implicitly

                                    coordinated antecedent                                                 178

                        2.4.5    Establishing the antecedent-anaphor relationship with

                                    implicit coordination                                                                  179

            2.5       Further consequences and applications of the account                180

                        2.5.1    Apparent differences between simple plurals and NPs

                                    modified by relational adjectives                                                180

                        2.5.2    Adjuncts and arguments and the split interpretation                    185

                        2.5.3    The prohibition against collective predicates                               188

                        2.5.4    The treatment of NP coordination                                             189

                        2.5.5    The condition on determiners                                                    191

            2.6       The range of constructions involving implicit coordination with

                        group formation                                                                                    203

                        2.6.1    Collective adverbials                                                                 203

                        2.6.2    English reflexives                                                                       204

                        2.6.3    A total of                                                                                 206

                        2.6.4    Binominal each                                                             208

                        2.6.5    Exception phrases                                                                     210

                        2.6.6    The generalization                                                                     214

                        2.6.7    The bound plural relation                                                           218

            2.7       Explicit coordination and antecedents composed of conjuncts in

                        different planes                                                                         222

            2.8       Other types of coordinate structures: Gapping and Bare

                        Argument Ellipsis                                                                                  225

                        2.8.1    Gapping and plural antecedents with conjuncts in different

                                    planes                                                                                       225

                        2.8.2    Bare Argument Ellipsis                                                  228

Notes                                                                                                                           231

Chapter 3         Implicit coordination in other coordinate structures                                 235

            3.1       Introduction                                                                                          235

            3.2       Disjunction and implicit coordination                                          235

            3.3       Relative clauses and implicit coordination                                               240

            3.4       Comparativs and implicit coordination                                       249

                        3.4.1    The phenomena                                                                        249

                        3.4.2    An analysis of relational adjectives in nongeneric

                                    comparatives                                                                            250

                        3.4.3    The analysis of relational adjectives in generic

                                    comparatives                                                                            252

                        3.4.4    Restrictions on relational adjectives in comparatives                   260

            3.5       Conclusion                                                                                           264

Notes                                                                                                                           265

Chapter 4         Comparatives                                                                                       267

            4.1       Introduction                                                                                          267

            4.2       Clausal comparatives                                                                            268

                        4.2.1    The general syntactic and semantic structure of clausal

                                    comparatives                                                                            268

                           The proposal                                                                268

                           Justification of the semantic analysis: the behavior

                                                of NPIs in comparatives                                                271

                           Quantifiers and connectives in comparative

                                                clauses                                                                         278

                           The degrees involved in comparatives                290

                        4.2.2    The syntactic basis of the semantic interpretation of

                                    comparative clauses                                                                  293

                        4.2.3    A formal semantic treatment of comparatives and quantifier

                                    scope interactions                                                                     294

                        4.2.4    A formal treatment of quantificational scope and

                                    interpretation and a compositional analysis of comparatives        302

                        4.2.5    The identification of the empty element in Comparative

                                    Deletion constructions                                                   306

                        4.2.6    Further evidence for the proposed account fo Comparative

                                    Deletion                                                                                    318

                        4.2.7    The appearance of pronouns in Comparative Deletion sites        325

                        4.2.8    Appendix: comparatives in French and German             327

                        4.2.9    Evidence for coordination in clausal comparatives                      336

            4.3       Phrasal comparatives                                                                            346

                        4.3.1    Introduction                                                                              346

                        4.3.2    Irreducible phrasal comparatives                                               347

                        4.3.3    The semantic analysis of phrasal comparatives               348

                        4.3.4    Evidence for coordination with phrasal comparatives     352

                        4.3.5    Evidence for a subordinate structure of phrasal

comparatives                                                                            358

            4.4       Comparative subdeletion                                                                       362

                        4.4.1    The problems with comparative subdeletion                               363

                        4.4.2    Comparative Subdeletion and Coordination                               363

                        4.4.3    Multiple comparative subdeletion                                              364

Notes                                                                                                                           369

Chapter 5         Coordination, quantification and operations on quantificational

                        domains                                                                                                372

            5.1       Introduction                                                                                          372

            5.2       Exception constructions                                                                        373

               The syntactic structure of simple exception constructions            373

               The distinction between free and connected exception

phrases                                                                                     373

                        5.2.2    Syntactic accounts of free exception phrases: Reinhart

(1990)                                                                                      374

            5.3       The semantics of exception phrases                                                       376

                        5.3.1    Basic semantic properties of exception phrases              376

                           The Quantifier Constraint: first observations                   377

                           The negative condition                                      378

                           The condition of inclusion                                              379

                        5.3.2    The formal semantics of exception phrases                                380

                           What do exception phrases operate on              380

                           The Quantifier Constraint: the proper generalization       382

                        5.3.3    Explaining the Quantifier Constraint                                           386

                           Prior syntactic and semantic explanation of the

                                                Quantifier Constraint                                                     386

                           An explanation in terms of the recoverability of the

                                                exception set                                                                392

                        5.3.4    Further issues concerning the semantics of simple

                                    exception phrases                                                                     394

                        5.3.5    The range of association of free exception phrases                     396

                        5.3.6    Indexical exception constructions                                              400

                        5.3.7    Exception constructions and polyadic quantification                   402

                           The multiple "else"-construction and polyadic

                                                quantification                                                                403

                           Otherwise and polyadic quantification               408

                           Polyadic quantification with nonindexical

                                                exception phrases                                                         410

            5.4       Syntactically related constructions with even, not even, instead

                        and but not                                                                                          421

                        5.4.1    "Even" phrases                                                                          422

                        5.4.2    "Replacement phrases"                                                  426

            5.5       Semantically related constructions 1: almost                                          427

            5.6       Semantically related constructions 2: extent clauses                                429

                        5.6.1    The characterization of extent clauses                            429

                        5.6.2    The range of association of extent clauses                                  431

                        5.6.3    The restriction on the associate set of extent clauses                   432

                        5.6.4    The syntactic and semantic analysis of extent clauses      432

            5.7       Semantically related constructions 3: amount relatives                434

            5.8       Inclusion and exclusion phrases and the source of the recoverability

                        condition                                                                                              436

Notes                                                                                                                           438