Conditions on X0 Movement

Y. Li, 1990

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X0-movement is subject not only to the Empty Category Principle (ECP), as is widely accepted now, but also to Binding Condition C (BCC) and the Subjacency Condition (SC).  Theoretically, this proposal is preferred because behaviorally X0-movement is brought even closer to XP-movement, which is also constrained by all these principles.  Empirically, we are now allowed not only to explain certain data which are not explained in a theory based solely on the ECP, but also to provide a unified analysis to verb-incorporation (VI), clitic-climbing (CC), and predicate-clefting (PC).

Theoretical background is laid out in Chapter 1, in which the notion of variables is modified to cover X0-traces resulting from moving a lexical head to a functional head.  This in turn enables such an X0-trace to fall into the domain of BCC.  In Chapter 2, it is shown that the fact that crosslinguistically only a small number of verbs can ever trigger VI poses a problem if X0-movement is constrained only by the ECP, but can be readily accounted for by BCC plus the modified definition of variables.  The environments in which CC takes place are also highly limited but constitute a superset of those for VI.  Chapter 3 argues that the similar requirements of the two phenomena on theirr structural environments is the result of BCC, while the difference derives from the possibility of applying the SC and intermediate trace deletion in the derivation of CC but not in VI.  An even looser restriciton on the environments is observed for PC, studied in Chapter 4.  Again BCC and SC play crucial rules in determining when PC is possible, with the looser constraint attributed to the presence of a resumptive verb filling the D-structure position of the clefted one.

Thesis Supervisor:         Kenneth Hale

Title:                             Ferrari P. Ward Professor of Modern Languages and Linguistics

Table of Contents

Chapter 1         Introduction                                                                                          1

            1.1       Universal grammar                                                                                2

                        1.1.1    X"-theory                                                                                 3

                        1.1.2    Theta-theory                                                                             4

                        1.1.3    Government theory                                                                   4

                        1.1.4    Bounding theory                                                                       9

                        1.1.5    Binding theory                                                              10

                        1.1.6    Case theory                                                                              14

                        1.1.7    Control theory                                                                          18

            1.2       Organization of the thesis                                                                      20


Chapter 2         Incorporation                                                                                        22

            2.1       Solutions to problems                                                                           24

                        2.1.1    Apparent solutions which don"t work                                        24

                        2.1.2    CP complement vs. VP complement                                         27

                        2.1.3    Analysis outlined                                                                       31

            2.2       Applications                                                                                         33

                        2.2.1    Two types of causativization                                                      33

                        2.2.2    Passivization                                                                             51

                        2.2.3    Negation                                                                                  59

                        2.2.4    Other VI triggering verbs " modal-like verbs                             62

                        2.2.5    Other VI triggering verbs " bridge verbs in Eskimo                    66

                        2.2.6    V-de construction in Chinese                                                    71

                        2.2.7    VI in the lexicon                                                                        74

            2.3       Perception verbs                                                                                   76

Chapter 3         Clitic-climbing                                                                           78

            3.1       Intermediate trace deletion in head-movement                           82

            3.2       Causatives in French and Italian                                                            87

                        3.2.1    Two types of faire-VP constructions                                        88

                        3.2.2    FI constructions                                                                        90

                        3.2.3    FP constructions                                                                       98

            3.3       Restructuring constructions                                                                    102

                        3.3.1    Structure of restructuring constructions                          102

                        3.3.2    Infinitive INFL                                                              109

                        3.3.3    Raising vs. control                                                                     116

            3.4       Exceptional case marking and negation                                      124

                        3.4.1    ECM                                                                                        124

                        3.4.2    Negation                                                                                  135

            3.5       Other clitics: en and y                                                                           141

Chapter 4         Predicate-cleftin                                                                                    145

            4.1       Data                                                                                                     146

                        4.1.1    Predicate-clefting as V-movement                                             147

                        4.1.2    Predicate-clefting vs. clitic-climbing                                           151

            4.2       Koopman"s (1984) analysis of predicate-clefting in Vata                       155

            4.3       Predicate-clefting reanalyzed                                                                 162

                        4.3.1    Infinitives                                                                                  162

                        4.3.2    Wh-island                                                                                 172

                        4.3.3    Non-bridge verbs                                                                     176

                        4.3.4    Bridge verbs                                                                             180

                        4.3.5    Clitic-climbing                                                               191