Binding as an Interface Condition: An Investigation of Hindi Scrambling

D. Jones, 1993

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This thesis provides an analysis of scrambling, following the Minimalist program of Chomsky 1992, examining Hindi as a case study and occasionally making comparisons with Japanese.

The first major claim is that there are two kinds of operations that yield scrambling.  One type, called Outer scrambling, is an Operator-Variable construction and is the result of movement.  The other type, called Inner scrambling, is the result of several conspiring factors that allow permutation without movement.  These factors are triggered by (i) the strength feature of functional heads (ii) Economy principles that hold at phonological form and (iii) Full Interpretation, which causes the Agr structure to be deleted after its agreement relations have been established.  These factors cause TnsP to collapse into an N-ary branching structure containing the arguments of the verb.  It is assumed that linear order is not fixed until Spellout.  Therefore, the N-ary branching structure is free to yield permutations without movement.  Since there is no movement, and hence no trace of movement, Inner scrambling is not subject to reconstruction effects.  Outer scrambling, since it is an Operator-Variable construction, is subject to reconstruction effects.

The second major claim is that the subject is special in that at least part of it must raise at LF to the Checking domain of C0.  If the subject cannot be split, for example, when the subject is a monomorphemic pronoun, the entire subject must raise.  The result is a novel solution to a problem for the Minimalist framework, namely, an account of how both Strong and Weak Crossover may be treated as interface conditions at Logical Form in scrambling constructions.

Furthermore, these structures are integral to an account which captures the subject-orientation of reflexive anaphors.  The account also captures the lack of subject-orientation for reciprocal anaphors.

Thesis Supervisor:         Noam Chomsky

Title:                             Institute Professor

Table of Contents

1          Introduction                                                                                                      9

            1.1       Scrambling                                                                                           9

                        1.1.1    Clause level scrambling                                                 11

                        1.1.2    Clause external scrambling                                                        13

                        1.1.3    Movement terminology                                                 13

                        1.1.4    Copy theory of movement                                                         14

                        1.1.5    Preference principle                                                                  15

                        1.1.6    Inert and active elements at head of chain                                  17

            1.2       Theoretical issues for scrambling                                                           20

                        1.2.1    Optionality and economy                                                          20

                        1.2.2    Scrambling and parameters                                                       25

            1.3       Theoretical architecture                                                             28

                        1.3.1    Binding relations are evaluated at the LF interface                      29

                        1.3.2    Weak Crossover at LF                                                 30

                        1.3.3    Strong Crossover at LF                                                            31

                        1.3.4    Domains                                                                                   31

            1.4       Clause internal versus clause external scrambling                                    32

            1.5       Fine-tuning of clause internal scrambling                                                34

2          Inner Scrambling by Clause Reduction                                                  43

            2.1       Strength of N and V features of Agr0 and Tns0                          43

            2.2       Clause reduction                                                                                   44

            2.3       Computational motivation for clause reduction                           46

            2.4       Specifiers and clause reduction                                                  48

                        2.4.1    Spec identification                                                                     49

                        2.4.2    Chain identification and persistent identification              50

                        2.4.3    Definition of clause reduction                                                     52

                        2.4.4    Radical clause reduction                                                            55

                        2.4.5    Hierarchical clause reduction                                                     58

                        2.4.6    Question of identifying IO                                                         61

                        2.4.7    Arguments against AgrIO                                                          61

            2.5       Inner Scrambling – transitives and ditransitives                           64

                        2.5.1    No inner scrambling at LF                                                         65

            2.6       Diagnostics applied to scrambling                                                          65

                        2.6.1    Weak Crossover data                                                               66

                        2.6.2    Strong Crossover data                                                              67

                        2.6.3    Binding Condition C                                                                 69

                        2.6.4    Accounting for Strong Crossover                                              70

            2.7       Reflexive binding                                                                                   79

            2.8       Subject raising to the checking domain of C0 at LF                                88

3          Outer Scrambling by Operator-Variable Construction                           91

            3.1       Long distance scrambling of anaphors                                       91

                        3.1.1    Outer scrambling of reflexives                                       91

                        3.1.2    Outer scrambling of reciprocals                                     96

            3.2       Interaction between inner and outer scrambling                          97

4          Conclusion                                                                                                       110