The Perceptual Basis of Long-Distance Laryngeal Restrictions
, G. Gallagher 2010
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The two main arguments in this dissertation are 1. That laryngeal cooccurrence restrictions are restrictions on the perceptual strength of contrasts between roots, as opposed to restrictions on laryngeal configurations in isolated roots, and 2. That laryngeal cooccurrence restrictions are restrictions on auditory, as opposed to articulatory, features. Both long-distance laryngeal dissimilation, where roots may have one but not two laryngeally marked stops (MacEachern 1999), and assimilation, where stops in a root must agree in laryngeal features (Hansson 2001; Rose and Walker 2004) are given a unified account based on a grammatical pressure to neutralize indistinct contrasts. This analysis is supported by the finding that certain non-adjacent sounds interact in perception. Specifically, the perception of a contrast in ejection or aspiration is degraded in roots with another ejective or aspirate as compared to another plain stop (e.g. the pair kapi-kapi is more confusable than the pair kapi-kapi). Roots that are minimally distinguished by having one vs. two laryngeally marked stops are confusable (e.g. kapi is confusable with kapi), and thus languages may avoid having both types of roots. The analysis integrates long-distance neutralizations with analyses of local neutralizations based on phonetic cues and contrast strength (Flemming 1995, 2004; Steriade 1997), showing that both local and non-local phenomena are driven by constraints against perceptually indistinct contrasts. The interaction between ejectives and aspirates in Quechua provides evidence for auditory features. These two articulatorily disparate sounds pattern together in the cooccurrence restrictions of Quechua, showing that some feature must pick them out as a class. It is argued that ejectives and aspirates may pattern together because they share long voice onset time. It is shown that defining laryngeally marked stops based on their language specific auditory properties correctly accounts both for ejective-aspirate interactions in Quechua and also for the interaction between ejectives and implosives in Hausa and Tzutujil.