Scrambling in Korean: Crossover, Reconstruction, and Binding Theory

J.-H. Cho, 1994

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Within the framework of minimalist program proposed by Chomsky (1992), this thesis explores scrambling in Korean with respect to crossover, reconstruction effects and binding phenomena and characterizes properties of movement types, their target positions and traces (or copies).

         Chapter 2 examines syntactic properties of scrambling with respect to crossover phenomena, which cannot be well accounted for by the traditional A/A distinction. We show that scrambling is distinguished from other operator movements, such as Wh-movement and QR, and provide evidence for the existence of a non-operator A-position (a broadly L-related position in Chomskys term) as the landing site of scrambling. We suggest that scrambling in Korean, as non-operator A-movement, leaves behind not a variable, but a null epithet. We therefore demonstrate that the lack of WCO effects in scrambling constructions is due to a null epithet, which is not subject to WCO effects.

         In Chapter 3, we argue that scrambling involves three different types of syntactic operations, i.e., a TopP-adjunction operation, an IP-adjunction operation and a substitution operation to SPEC (AGRo). We show that scrambling across a subject, as non-operator A-movement, creates a null epithet immune to WCO effects, and an anaphor can take as its antecedent the element in non-operator position. Observing that scrambling across a topic yields WCO effects and does not create a new anaphor binding possibility, we claim that scrambling across a topic, as movement to an operator position, leaves behind a variable subject to WCO effects, and the element in operator position cannot serve as an antecedent for an anaphor. We then deal with short scrambling and attribute the lack of reconstruction effects to the A-movement property of short scrambling.

         In Chapter 4, we maintain that the copy of A-movement remains whereas that of A-movement deletes at LF and that Binding conditions, as conditions involving interpretation, apply at the LF interface level. We show that scrambled direct objects in Korean are preposed to SPEC (AGRo) and then to the sentence-initial position. Finally, we demonstrate that in Korean, what raises to SPEC (AGRo) for Case-checking at LF is not a direct object in-situ but its accusative Case feature.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION                                                                                           1


2.1. Introduction                                                                                         8

2.2. Weak Crossover in Korean                                                                                  11

         2.2.1. Pronoun as a Bound Variable and Weak Crossover                                  11

         2.2.2. Weak Crossover in Korean: Wh-Movement and Quantifier Raising                         13

2.3. Scrambling and Crossover                                                                                  16

         2.3.1. Clause Internal Scrambling and Weak Crossover                                             16

         2.3.2. Long Distance Scrambling and Weak Crossover                                      21

         Long Distance Scrambling and Weak Crossover in Hindi                          21

         Locality Conditions on A-Chains                                                     23

         Condition on A-Chain (Chomsky 1986b)                                  23

         Extended Uniformity Condition (Lasnik and Saito 1992)               24

         Long Distance Scrambling and Weak Crossover in Korean               26

         2.3.3. Scrambling and Strong Crossover                                                               29

         Copy Theory of Movement: A – vs. A – Movement                         29

         SCO: Scrambling vs. Passive and Raising                                            33

2.4. Scrambling and Non-Operator A-Movement                                                    36

         2.4.1. Scrambling: Movement to Non-Operator Position                                            37

         Webelhuth (1989)                                                            37

         Saito (1989)                                                                   38

         2.4.2 Operator Movement vs. Non-Operator A-Movement                                41

2.5. Lasnik and Stowells (1991) Null Epithet and Scrambling                                       45

         2.5.1. Null Epithets in English Tough, PG and Topicalization Constructions             45

         2.5.2. Scrambling as A-Movement creates a Null Epithet                                  48

         Scrambling and QR                                                           48

         Scrambling and English Topicalization                                              50

         Our definition of Operator Movement and Non-Operator A-Movement        52

         2.5.3. Variable vs. Null Epithet                                                                         54

2.6 Consequences and Implications                                                                   58

         2.6.1. Null Epithet and Binding Principle C                                                   58

         2.6.2. Parasitic Gap or Empty Pronoun?                                                               60

         2.6.3. LF-Reconstruction of Scrambling and Weak Crossover                              65

         2.6.4. Null Epithet in Relative and Tough Constructions in Korean                       70

         Null Epithet in Relative Constructions                                              70

         Null Epithet and WCO                                                      70

         Null Epithet and SCO                                                                75

         Null Epithet in Tough Constructions                                      76

2.7. Concluding Remarks                                                                                82

THREE TYPES OF SCRAMBLING                                                                           83

3.1 Introduction                                                                                         83

3.2. Scrambling Across a Subject                                                                       84

         3.2.1. Reconstruction Effect                                                                   84

         Binding Principle C                                                           84

         Binding Principle A                                                           89

         Anaphoric Reconstruction Effects in English Raising Constructions  93

         Passive and Raising as NP-Movement in Korean                       94

         Numeral Quantifier                                                               94

         Scope Ambiguity                                                         96

         3.2.2. Weak Crossover (WCO)                                                                 98

         3.2.3. Anaphor Binding                                                                                  100

3.3. Scrambling across a Topic                                                                         105

         3.3.1. Topic Constructions                                                                     106

         Base-Generated Topic                                                                106

         Topic Reading vs. Contrastive Reading                                              108

         PP-Top is Contrastive                                                        109

         3.3.2. Scrambling across a Topic is Operator Movement                                            113

         Reconstruction Effect                                                        114

         Weak Crossover (WCO)                                                               117

         Anaphor Binding                                                              118

         Where is a Topic Base-generated?                                         119

         IP-adjoined Position                                                                119

         SPEC of CP                                                                   120

         Spec of TopP                                                                         121

         WCO and Anaphor Binding Revisited                                       126

         Scrambling across a Topic and WCO                                     127

         Scrambling across Contrastive nun/un and WCO                     128

         Scrambling across a PP-Top and WCO                                             133

         Scrambling across a Topic and Anaphor Binding                        135

         Scrambling across Contrastive nun/un and Anaphor Binding                 138

         Scrambling across PP-Top and Anaphor Binding                        140

         Anaphor Binding by Topic                                                    141

3.4 Short Scrambling                                                                                    144

         3.4.1. Short Scrambling is A-Movement                                                               144

         3.4.2. Long Distance Scrambling to VP-adjoined Position                                           149

3.5. Concluding Remarks                                                                                153


4.1. Introduction                                                                                         155

4.2. Scrambling and Binding Principle                                                                 156

         4.2.1. Scrambling and R-expression                                                           156

         4.2.2. Scrambling and Anaphor                                                                         159

         4.2.3. Scrambling and Pronoun                                                                         162

         4.2.4. Short Scrambling across an Adjunct                                                   164

4.3. Reconstruction Effects and Intermediate A-Position                                                    166

         4.3.1. Movement to SPEC of AGRo                                                             166

         Overt Object Shift in French and English (Branigan 1992)                166

         Case Checking and Economy of Derivation (Nemoto 1993)              169 The Superiority Condition, AGRo and Economy of Derivation

(Boskovic 1993a)                                                                       172

         4.3.2. Reconstruction Effects and Copy Theory of Movement                              176

         Scrambling and R-expression                                               176

         Scrambling and Anaphor                                                    180

         Scrambling and Pronoun                                                    183

4.4. Scrambling across a Topic and AGRoP                                                            185

         4.4.1. Weak Crossover                                                                                  186

         4.4.2. Anaphor Binding                                                                                  190

4.5. Object Position                                                                                     194

         4.5.1. Scrambling of Adjunct                                                                   194

         4.5.2. Scrambling of Dative NP                                                                196

         Binding Principle C                                                           196

         Binding Principle A                                                           199

         4.5.3. AGRioP                                                                                    201

         4.5.4. Case Checking: Case Feature Movement                                                      207

         Antecedent Containment Deletion (Lasnik 1993b and Takahashi 1993)        207

         Speculation on Accusative Case Checking                                 211

         Accusative Case Checking in Korean                                              211

         Lasnik and Saitos (1991) Facts                                           216

4.5. Concluding Remarks                                                                                219

Bibliography                                                                                              221